Jeanette Ushanda 38, a refugee living in Maratatu village, Kyangwali resettlement camp in Greater Hoima district says collecting firewood has become a serious source of conflict between the host communities and the refugees.

Ushanda, the already traumatized refugee who ran from the Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC three years back, narrates that she has to negotiate access to gather firewood in land surrounding the camp or else she risks assault and violence.

“Collecting firewood comes with tension, violence and insecurity. One time I was beaten by a Ugandan national because I had accessed his land to collect firewood without his permission. He even took away my firewood,”  Ushanda narrated painfully.

Ushanda is among the people who experience human rights violations and still find themselves surrounded by conflicts within the displaced camps in Kijayo and Rwamutonga camps for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and Kyangwali resettlement camp.

Edward Tumusiime, the Kijayo Village chairperson says that scarce resources and land shortages have resulted into conflicts among the internally displaced people in Kijayo both at household and community level.

“The displaced people lack resources like land, money and food. This brings conflicts in families as people struggle with poverty and breaks into gender based violence. At community level, these affected people conflict with the host communities in search for firewood, food and money because they are looked at as competitors. So conflicts are common” said Tumusiime.

Jolly Kebirungi, the Kyangwali resettlement commandant under the Office of the Prime Minister explains that the upsurge number of refugees has led to scarcity of resources as this has resulted into conflicts with in the camp.  

“The number of refugees shot from 35,000 in 2013 to over 120,000 in 2017 due to influx of Congolese refugees. As the number increases, the land allocated to them reduces, the water points get crowded with long queues and even the food given to them by World Food Program in terms of money has been reducing. There is also much pressure on the forests so we limit them from accessing the forest reserve for firewood. So all these are causing conflicts here,” Kebirungi noted.

These issues were raised during the baseline study that was conducted by National Association of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE) to determine the nature and magnitude of conflicts in Kijayo and Rwamutonga camps for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and Kyangwali resettlement camp in February.

Joan Akiiza, the NAPE Lawyer says the survey is aimed at guiding NAPE on intervening in peace keeping efforts in the camps by formation of community-based institutions known as Local Peace Committees (LPCs).

“Local Peace Committees will help in negotiations and mediations to reduce conflicts and promote peaceful reconciliation, and also train community members on peace and conflict management in order to solve their own conflicts,” Akiiza said.

She also noted that NAPE plans to empower communities especially women in the camps with knowledge and skills of improving their livelihoods to reduce poverty and maintain peace.

The two year project dubbed, “Enhancing the role and capacity of grassroots women to promote peaceful co-existence and prevent conflicts” will be operating in Kijayo , Kyangwali, Rwamutonga camps in Kikuube districts. The project is funded by Women Peace Humanitarian Fund with technical support from UN WOMEN.


Over 60 women affected by land grabs in Northern Uganda and Oil region spent the big part of International Women’s day on 8th March in a bicycle caravan aimed at raising awareness on the women struggles against land injustices in Buliisa district western Uganda.

The cycling event comprised of people with disabilities, victims of land evictions, internally displaced persons, people living with HIV/AIDS, grassroots women and women activists from Buliisa, Hoima, Amuru and Nwoya districts. It was organized by National Association of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE) and National Association of Women Action in Development (NAWAD) with support from Kakindo Women’s Integration Development Association (KAWIDA).

The women raced a 4- kilometer distance  from Albertine Nile Hotel to Buliisa district local government to hand over a petition to government officials to address land injustices and promote women’s rights on land.

The petition was handed over to the Buliisa District Member of Parliament, Nora Bigirwa Nyendwooha.

In the petition, women say compulsory land acquisition for government projects have made women more vulnerable due to challenges arising from delayed and poor compensation.

“ Women particularly those from Buliisa district feel left out of the land acquisition and compensation processes even though they are principle land users in their communities,” the petition reads part.

They also raised a concern that cultural norms and values have made women to be regarded as land users not owners which limits their efforts to get empowered economically.

“Discriminatory cultural practices and norms, poverty, ignorance of laws and policies at national and district levels are some of the key factors which contribute to sidelining women in the land acquisition and compensation process,” the petition further reads.

The women, among other demands, want government to make a deliberate action to sensitize women about land rights and women-alone capacity, sensitization and consultation meetings to allow them have a safe space to speak freely and express themselves.

While receiving a copy of the petition, Bigirwa said she will address the issues before the speaker of Parliament of Uganda. She said women are indeed struggling with land injustices by their families and clans yet they are the bread winners.

She urged women to start saving money so that they can buy their own land.

“As women, we continue to be discriminated. Why should women be land users not owners yet we are the bread winners? Most of us are paying school fees when men are not doing anything; and when it comes to decisions, men think we are less important. I will ensure that these demands reach the table of the speaker of parliament,” she noted.

Sostine Namanya, the Gender and Food Security Officer at NAPE said NAPE will supporting women through sensitization, economic empowerment and legal aid support to ensure that they access to justice and protect women’s rights on land.

Christine Bwailisa from NAWAD noted that leaders should actively support women to advocate for their land rights.

The two winners of the bicycle race were awarded with local alternative start-up kit geared towards promoting economic empowerment.


National Association of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE) has condemned the human rights violations inflicted on Kijayo camp residents waiting justice for their land by Hoima sugar limited.

NAPE Executive Director, Frank Muramuzi who visited Kijayo Camp for Internally Displaced People (IDP) on February 07, said investors grab land for their own benefits without considering the fate of affected people. He asked the residents not to lose hope and to continue pushing until they get justice.

“These investors who take people’s land mind much about profits without considering the needs of the local people. That’s why these people who have taken away your land have proceeded to destroy Bugoma Central Forest Reserve. However, you should not give up on seeking justice,” Muramuzi said.

This is was after the evicted residents decried harassment by Hoima Sugar company workers and contamination of their sources of water with sugar molasses.

The residents say Hoima Sugar Limited discharges sugar molasses to the existing water sources used by the residents and because of this, the water has changed its color to foul black with a stench smell which leaves them in fear of causing any water-related health issues.

They also noted that the Hoima Sugar factory workers are harassing the residents with impunity. They say these issues combined with poor living conditions in the camp and food insecurity have driven affected residents out of the camp to look for survival elsewhere even before justice for their land is delivered.

“The molasses from the sugar factory ends up in our water sources. We are forced to use and drink contaminated water because we have no choice. In addition, Hoima sugar workers look at people from the camp as useless with no future. They knock us with their vehicles-some have been maimed and others lost children. Women and children fear to go through the sugarcane plantation alone because they risk rape. Because of this, people have started running away from the camp,” said Esther Turyaheebwa, a resident of Kijayo camp.

Joan Akiza, the NAPE Lawyer says NAPE intends to start a project of conflict resolution and peace building among the affected residents and is optimistic that the issues will be addressed through mediation and improving women’s livelihoods.

 “It is very unfortunate that communities continues to lose their land and be illegally evicted without following the due process when the government that is supposed to protect the people is the one witch-hunting them. Government should be able to balance the interests of local communities and multinational companies. Whereas people should give away their land, it should be in free and fair manner. Compensation should not be demanded for years by those affected to reach at a point of giving up. That’s why we are coming in to ensure peaceful co-existence through mediation and dialogue,” Ms.Akiiza explained.

The project dubbed, “Enhancing the role of women to promote peaceful co-existance and prevent conflicts,” will be operating in Kijayo and Kyangwali in Kikuube and Rwamutonga in Hoima districts.

Kijayo residents, who have been in the camp for about 6 years after being evicted by Hoima Sugar Limited to pave way for sugarcane growing, have waited for court to decide their fate for close to two years in vain.


Despite the continuous clearance of Bugoma Forest Reserve for sugarcane growing by Hoima Sugar Limited, Bunyoro kingdom parliament and the kingdom subjects have maintained their stand against the giveaway.

Moses Ssemahunge, the Vice Chairperson of Bunyoro Kingdom Natural Resources committee who doubles as the Representative of Nalweyo Sub County to Bunyoro Parliament says the issue of Bugoma forest giveaway has remained a contentious issue in the kingdom.

This was during a talk show on Community Green Radio about the current status of Bugoma Forest that was held on January 6, 2021

Ssemahunge explained that much as parliament is against the giveaway, they have been let down by the Kingdom administration led by the Prime Minister Andrew Byakutaga and his cabinet.

He says the next parliamentary sitting is ready to impeach some of the Kingdom administrators or force the Prime Minister to resign if their demand of saving Bugoma forest is not adhered to.

“Recently we were supposed to have a parliament meeting but it was called off for unknown reasons. The issue of Bugoma was on order paper. Rukurato(Parliament) is against the giveaway, but some of the administrators give a go ahead. But they will not skip the next meeting; we are demanding that Bugoma be saved or the Omuhikirwa(Kingdom Prime Minister) resigns. We are also ready to impeach some of administrators. As we talk, Hoima sugar has gone ahead with clearing of the forest but we are sure it can still be saved before sugarcane is planted. Since it’s a natural forest, it can sprout and get back to its shape. We are sure, the local people will back us,” Ssemahunge explained.

Ssemahunge also noted that the Bugoma forest has a great attachment to the kingdom’s culture besides; its protection will save the oil-rich region from carbon emissions.

“Culture and environment are highly related. Ebinyege(rattles) that we use in our traditional  Runyege dance are got from the forest and any kingdom devoid of its culture is a dead one! Besides, Bunyoro being an oil rich region, we need trees more than never before because of carbon emissions,” he expounded further.

He calls upon locals to boycott Hoima sugar as a way of showing resistance.

“It doesn’t matter whether the forest belongs to the kingdom or the central government, it should stay! We can put it into other use other than sugarcane growing; actually we are calling on locals to boycott Hoima sugar. 

What subjects say

Desire Mulenzi, the Chairperson of Nyairongo Village in Kabwoya Sub County in Kikuube District says the forest has become a hotspot for illegal loggers and charcoal burners as National Forestry Authority, NFA officials look on. 

He says NFA officials and the military guarding the forest have backed nature destroyers instead of supporting the locals in protecting the forest.

“Around November 2020 when I tried to inquire about why Hoima Sugar Limited were clearing the forest, soldiers intercepted and arrested me. We shall continue fighting for our forest,” Mulenzi noted.

Alice Asimire, the female councillor for Kaseeta in Buseruraka Sub county Hoima District says Bugoma is the source 0f rain, which in turn supports agriculture- the major source of livelihood for women. She also pointed out that it is a source of mushrooms and herbal medicine.

Save Bugoma Campaign insists

Joan Akiza, the Legal and Gender officer at National Association of Professional Environmentalists, NAPE says the forest should be protected due to prevailing climate change effects.

She says Save Bugoma Campaign will continue to push for forest protection until Hoima Sigar limited backs off completely.

Ms. Beitwamasa Jenifer, another advocate of the Save Bugoma Forest campaign said the rate of forest degradation is alarming and women need climate justice. She said women to become change agents by joining movements with shared vision to fight land grabbers- who disguise as investors and at the end push local communities in untold suffering.  She also advised women to form climate change centres to work as a learning Centre and spreading the gospel of climate justice.


Hoima Sugar Limited leased 5,779 hectares or 22 square miles of land from Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom in August 4, 2016 after the Omukama(King) Solomon Gafabusa Iguru obtained the title for the land in August 1, 2016.

In 2020, National Environmental Management Authority, NEMA cleared Hoima Sugar Limited to cultivate sugarcane on grassland covering 9.24 square miles in Kyangwali, Kikuube district western Uganda.

During a briefing of the European Union Delegation that had visited the area on 2nd November 2020, the Environment Minister, Beatrice Anywar said that all activities in the forest had been stopped pending resurvey of the boundaries of the forest that had been put on halt until after the presidential elections held on January 14, 2021.

However, this is contrary to what is ground according to Desire Mulenzi, a neighbour to the forest. Mulenzi says Hoima Sugar limited has continued with clearance and illegal logging and charcoal burning are the order of the day.


Artisanal gold miners in Kassanda district in central Uganda are actively embracing Borax use as National Association of Professional Environmentalists(NAPE) steps up efforts to promote mercury free Gold mining.

Ssempala Herbert Edward, the Manager for Kitumbi-Kayonza Miners Association (KKMA) says with several trainings from NAPE on the dangers of mercury, the miners have started changing the mindset to Borax use.

“Miners are now willing to switch to the use of borax an alternative to mercury but we want a permanent trainer here. If NAPE can recommend a trainer who is an expert in Borax use, the association will be able to employ him for a month to acquaint our miners with mercury free methodology skills,” Ssempala said.

Ssempala was speaking at the official launch of the mercury free demonstration site and at the same time receiving a ball mill machine and accessories on behalf of the miners in Kassanda District. The items were delivered by NAPE to be used as a training center for artisanal miners in Borax use in gold mining that is less harmful to human health and the environment on 7th December.

While handing over the machine, Mrs. Carol Aguti, the NAPE Board Member, who represented NAPE said the miners should intensively change their attitude from use of mercury since NAPE has helped to put up a demonstration site.

She said they should use the site to train all the miners on gravity concentration technology and using Borax now that the government is already in the process of phasing out mercury.

“The problem with miners is change of attitude, but what you should know is that it is expensive to treat yourselves but cheap to protect yourselves. So NAPE is here to sensitize you, please sieve this opportunity,” she said.

The Kassanda district Natural Resources Officer, Clare Kamagara said miners should adopt the use of Borax for the good of their health and the environment since its safe and also asked KKMA to emphasize use of protective gears.

She said the miners should consider safety first and work hand in hand with government and NAPE to ensure mercury free gold mining.

The Kassanda District Community Development Officer, Ssebulime Gozanga said he was happy to visit the mines upon invitation by NAPE since they lack enough facilitation as a district to do spot checks.

 He said he had observed the miners are working without safety equipment like gloves, overall, gumboots, and helmets which puts them at a risk of touching and inhaling mercury that is dangerous to their health. He said the miners should put their lives into consideration and work with NAPE to ensure that mercury is slowly phased out.

Peruth Atukwatse, the Program Officer in Charge of Chemicals Management at NAPE said mercury use among Kayonza miners is still high which prompted NAPE to put a demonstration site where the miners have been trained in an alternative where Borax is added to the concentrate at the final stage after gravity concentration through direct smelting.

She said in addition to several trainings on the impacts of mercury and the need to shift from its use, the demonstration site will act as a learning centre for the miners but also to demonstrate to government that there are alternatives to mercury that should be promoted. 


Severe hunger and food insecurity experienced by Kalangala Islanders during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown has pushed the communities to rescind the decision of converting their land from palm oil growing to food growing.

Communities say the introduction of palm oil growing in the area persuaded many households to switch from fishing and subsistence farming to growing palm oil trees and there is no enough land to grow food for local consumption.

Dorah Gwosekera, says COVID-19 preventive measures have exposed the extent of food insecurity at households as many families were depending on one meal a day. She says food shortage has been worsened by COVID-19 since people were caught unprepared to save food and money yet there was increased number of people at households.

“Many households were not secure enough in terms of food apart from a few that are engaged in food growing yet the children were at home and everyone was not working. Communities largely depend on fish for their livelihood and a few are in subsistence farming. Some had abandoned fishing to palm oil growing. This has rendered people into untold suffering fending food for their families,” she said.

Prossy Nalubuye, the Vice Chairperson for Bujumba Sustainability Development Association(BUSDA) says COVID-19 has taught the communities the importance of embracing food production. She urged the government and palm companies to stop persuade people to give away their land for palm oil and instead focus on sensitizing them on large scale food production.

“Palm oil companies have been persuading people that this monoculture cash crop will get them out of poverty. But the story is different, people are poorer. Therefore, government should come up to support food security programs.

She says the association has supported many households with vegetable seeds to embrace kitchen gardening so that they can get what to eat.

The large plantations of palm oil in areas previously covered by natural forest has not only impacted severely on food insecurity but robbed them of forest resources like mushrooms, medicinal herbs and firewood.

“Now I have to walk deep in the forest to look for mushrooms yet they were everywhere. I used to sell 20kg tin of mushrooms at 130,000 shillings. This is good money. But these days they are hardly seen,” said Frida Namusoke.

Allan Kalangi, the Sustainability School Manager at National Association of Professional Environmentalists(NAPE) says its high time the islanders embraced the idea of increasing food security at households.

“The population is growing yet you are giving away your land for palm oil growing. What will you feed the next generation? You need to start now to think beyond palm oil growing,” he said.


When Moses Byarufu, a resident of Kasenyi village lost his two pieces of land to oil developments in Buliisa district, he used his 58 million shillings compensation money to construct an 8-roomed permanent house at Wanseko landing site.

Wanseko being a busy place, Byarufu had strategically constructed a house for both residential and commercial purposes. And indeed, it had started fetching him more than 400,000 shillings per month from rentals and this had prompted him to resign on his job as a potter at Kigwera Health Centre 11 to cater for this and other businesses.

“My land was taken away by government to pave way Central Processing Unit Project Kigwera village and road construction under Uganda National Revenue Authority in Buliisa Town Council. I bought a plot and constructed a house at Wanseko. I then resigned on my job that was earning me 90,000 Uganda shillings,” he narrated.

However, hardly a year after construction, the dreams of a 38-year-old father of 7 were shuttered after the overflowing water of Lake Albert submerged the business premises at Wanseko. This brought him back on the knees and struggles of what to feed the family.

“I put in 75 million shillings to finish that house which is far beyond the compensation. I have now resorted to riding a motorcycle to feed my family which is also in a rented house. Life has become hard. One may think this oil money is cursed,” he narrated.

Byarufu is one the business community members at Wanseko landing site that are crying foul as the lake continues to submerge their business premises.

The area now looks isolated with boats floating on top of water weed in front of abandoned buildings. Shops, restaurants and a fish market are among the business premises that have been submerged by rising water levels.

Grace Katusabe, a fishmonger at the landing site says the rising water and COVID-19 pandemic have affected her business leaving her with no source of income and heavily indebted.

“Early this year during a market day, we were chased by security officers saying they don’t want people to gather due to COVID-19 pandemic. I had just got a loan to put in my business. When the businesses were put to halt, my business was affected and my money wasted. The rising water levels at Lake Albert have also displaced me so life is not easy. We now eat one meal a day because COVID-19 got me when I had just got a loan and I had not saved money,” she narrated.

The case is no different from Kaiso landing site. The beach management unit house has also been submerged and other houses that were constructed near the lake.

Kyamanywa Alfred, one of the former beach managers says when they were constructing the beach, it was not anticipated that it would at one time be submerged. The beach was used for cleaning fish before taken to other markets and it was used by community members as a meeting place.

The houses of some of the members of Kaiso Women’s Group, which is supported by National Association of Professional Environmentalists(NAPE), have already been affected. Constance Nyamisana whose house is a metre away from the water levels says she is worried of losing her shop to the water levels and is pondering the next move.

“The water is submerging our houses slowly but the conditions are not good. People have made makeshift houses in the upland where they are sleeping with the whole family. Prices for small poles have increased to Uganda shillings 5000 per pole. They lack water and other basics needs,” she said.

Most of the affected persons and facilities are within the 200-meter buffer zone recommended by National Environmental Management Authority(NEMA) Act for lakes. Though this time the rising water levels are going beyond the buffer zones, encroachment has happened as mandated authorities like NEMA and the respective district environment offices and land boards look on.

While visiting the area, Allan Kalangi, the Sustainability School Manager at NAPE, said the government should have sensitized the communities and forewarned them on the need to protect the buffer zones. He, however, urged the communities to learn from this disaster and spearhead the fight against environmental destruction.

“This time I don’t put a blame on the communities. The government should have protected the buffer zones and forewarned the communities. But even the beach management unit shelter was constructed with in the buffer zones with support from government,” Kalangi said.

Thousands of people have been turned into climate change refugees by rising water levels on Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga and Lake Victoria.

Frank Muramuzi, the Executive Director National Association of Professional Environmentalists, NAPE says people residing and working close to environmentally and ecologically sensitive areas to vacate voluntarily.


Grassroot women in Hoima and Kikuube district have formed a coalition to protect Bugoma forest against sugarcane land use.

The coalition dubbed “Women Coalition 4 Bugoma Forest” was formed during a women lobby and advocacy meeting that was held at Bugoma Jungle Lodge in Hoima Kikuube district on 30th November. The meeting was organized by National Association of Professional Environmentalists(NAPE) in partnership with National Association of Women in Development(NAWAD) and Womankind.

During the meeting, the women said changing the land use of Bugoma forest to sugarcane growing will directly affect their survival and livelihood.

They are worried that taking away the forest could escalate climate change impacts like change of seasons, flooding and drought urging that forming a coalition will help them join the fight against destruction as one voice.

“We depend much on this forest for rain since most of us derive our income from agriculture, our water sources come from this forest, we harvest the forest resources like mushrooms and honey for food and sell, get traditional herbs for medicine and collect firewood,” Mbabazi Addah a resident of Kabwoya sub county in Hoima district said.

Lovisa Namatovu, a resident of Nyairongo village in Kabwooya sub county says they are living in fear of being evicted from their land since the boundaries between the forest and community land are not clear.

“Recently, some unknown people put mark stones in front of my house. we don’t know the next step, so time in now to take action as women. When we lose our land we shall suffer because men tend to abandon us when things turn around. If government cares about the plight of women, they should leave the forest as it is,” Namatovu said.

Alice Asiimwe, a resident of Kaseeta B village says they have been protecting the forest for long for their livelihood and feel frustrated that it has been given away to the investor for sugarcane growing.

“I don’t think the investor has come for the forest only. He is coming for us too to be evicted from our land! our survival is on the land so if they chase us, how are we going to survive? Why do they want to chase women who have been protecting this forest? We need peace. Let them come and measure the boundaries,” said Asiimwe.

Asiimwe noted that the local leaders have kept a deaf ear on the concerns of the local communities and they need to take advantage of President Museveni’s campaign visit in the area to express their fears and thoughts about the forest.

“The president is coming on 19th December to look for votes from us, we hear the forest has a big hand from above. This is the time to understand all this. We shall write a petition to the Kikuube Resident District Commissioner demanding to meet the president. We believe he will be able to listen to us,” she added

Esther Turyaheebwa, who lives in the camp for Internally Displaced People(IDP) said their life has never been the same since eviction from their land in 2015 by the same Company-Hoima Sugar Limited- which is destroying the forest. She said the communities around Bugoma forest are heading to similar challenges if they don’t come up to fight.

“I feel more worried when I hear of another possible eviction because I felt if the court case fails we may shift to these other areas and settle there. We had land for cultivation and food security before we were evicted. But now we are struggling to get what to eat. You better wake up!” she said.

Lilian Akello Kitoma, a resident of Purongo town council in Nwoya district said women in their area have been greatly affected by large scale rice farming and human-wild life conflict warning that people adjacent to Bugoma may face the same if they don’t act.

“Investors bought our land and in turn women are offering cheap labor to them because men sold off the land without our consent saying married women don’t come along with land. Those who have land to grow crops are sleeping in the gardens guarding crops against animals,” she said.

Joy Rufunda, the chairperson of Blind Women Association in Hoima suggested that women should seek audience with the Bunyoro Kingdom Prime Minister, Andrew Byakutaaga to explain their position as women on the forest degradation since it was the Kingdom that sold the forested land to Hoima Sugar Limited.

Robina Tibakanya, the Hoima District Coordinator for Women Living with HIV/AIDS also called upon health organizations to join the fight since the impacts of forest degradation like climate change and food insecurity directly affect people living with HIV/AIDS whose life is fragile.

Sostine Namanya, the Gender and Food Security Officer at NAPE said women have been left out in matters concerning the forest, a reason they came up with a dialogue to have their voice.

Jenifer Nakitende, a Field Officer from NAWAD said women should change their mindset to alternative livelihoods like making charcoal briquettes, adding value to their produce, mushroom growing and making herbal medicine gardens as they continue to fight for Bugoma forest.

The dialogue climaxed with the launch of Alternative Livelihood Research in which women from Hoima and Buliisa districts participated in identifying alternative livelihood options available for women; and a walk to the forest where women were carrying placards that carry messages of protest against degradation of Bugoma forest.

According to an official from National Forestry Authority, boundary opening exercise was halted due to the prevailing political situation in the country.


When COVID-19 associated national lockdown began in March 2020, Norah Ninsiima,45, a tailor and a businesswoman dealing in clothes in Buseruka trading centre in Buseruka sub county in Hoima district did not see it coming. She was not adequately prepared in terms of food security and savings that would enable her and 6 children negotiate and survive through the severe challenges brought by the lockdown.

Ms.Ninsiima says when the businesses were ordered to close, she too closed her business yet it was her major source of income.

      “I would sell my clothes and buy food, pay house rent and also take care of my necessities. But when the lockdown started, it heavily affected me. I was not prepared in terms of food and savings. I had just paid school fees and was broke. I almost failed to feed my family; I depended on my neighbours for food since they are farmers,” Ninsiima narrated.

Ms.Ninsiima is among 50 rural women from Hoima district who benefited from a training on how women can engage in beekeeping and kitchen gardening for sustainable alternative livelihoods which was organised by National Association of Professional Environmentalists(NAPE) in Hoima from Monday 11th to 14th October.

The women were engaged in practical training on how to grow vegetables in sacks, jerry cans and bottles and maintain small vegetable gardens within their homesteads. They were also taken through the process of beekeeping and visited apiaries so that they can replicate and get alternative livelihoods.

Deborah Nakalanzi, an experienced Ktichen Gardening trainer from Kulika Uganda and an urban farmer from Wakiso district encouraged women to embrace kitchen gardening since its affordable and has sustainable income.

“My kitchen garden in my backyard was very helpful during the lockdown. I grow cabbages, spinach, pumpkin, coriander, green pepper, carrots, different food spices, onions, garlic and many other types of vegetables in my yard. I used to feed my family and also sell from home. This saved visits to the markets during the lockdown and also saved me from spending money,” she said while demonstrating to women how they grow vegetables in sacks.

“Kitchen gardening has potential to help women earn a sustainable living; giving them social and economic empowerment. Despite the mobility restrictions, there was no need for me to go to the markets because everything was in my compound and backyard. And the nutrition of my family was not affected by low incomes during the lockdown,” she added.

Jesca Buteeraba,50, an experienced beekeeper from Butimba village in Kizirafumbi sub county, Kikuube district says beekeeping is a promising alternative livelihood that enhances household food security and women’s income. She said it is a good venture for women since it does not take a lot of time and can therefore be taken as an alternative livelihood.

“The lockdown began during harvesting season when I was extracting my honey. I kept selling as usual because my honey is always on order. It is on high demand, people within my community buy it off before I look for outside market. Therefore, my income was not anywhere connected, said Buteeraba as she toured women through her apiary which is about 1km from her home.

Sostine Namanya, the Gender and Food Security Officer at NAPE said the impact of COVID-19 pandemic measures to curb the spread have disproportionately impacted on the livelihoods, health and wellbeing of women.

She says it is important to engage and train women in sustainable livelihoods so that they cannot be affected in future.

Sostine said NAPE will continue to train women so that they actively engage in beekeeping and kitchen gardening as alternative livelihood. She said those who have been trained will be followed up and supported.


Transiting from the use of mercury to a more user friendly, less harmful and more productive methodology of using Borax in artisanal gold mining is still slow but catching up with intensive trainings among artisanal miners especially in Kassanda district.

Despite some of them knowing the harmful impacts of mercury, their mindset is still stuck to the fact that mercury is still the best option alternative, perhaps due to lack of enough sensitization on alternative choices.

“I used to work in Mulago National Referral Hospital as a technician before coming here in the mines. We used to ensure that mercury is not poorly exposed because of its harmful impacts on someone’s health. But when I came here, I found people touching, inhaling and even pouring it on ground which is very dangerous. But because most of us miners are here to make money for our children, we are aware that we shall not live long but shall leave the families happy,” said Wasswa Ssekalye, 52, a gold miner in cygonmining (Kayonza) site in Kitumbi sub county.

With the efforts to change this mindset and promote mercury free gold mining, National Association of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE) organised a learning exchangeand experience sharing where experienced artisanal mining trainers who have used borax method in Buhweju and Namayingo districts to train their counterparts in Kasanda district.

NAPE, working with support from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF)-Uganda, a small grants program under United Nations Development Program (UNDP) on a project to promote mercury free methodology in artisanal and small scale gold miners put up a demonstration site in Kayonza mining site which is being used as training center for artisanal miners in Borax use in gold mining that is less harmful to human health and the environment.

During the training, over 20 artisanal miners were trained in Borax technology so that they are able to train others in Kitumbi-Kayonza gold mining. Kitumbi-Kayonza gold mining site brings together over 500 artisanal miners registered under Kitumbi-Kayonza Gold Miners Association (KKMA) in Kitumbi Sub County Kasanda district.

Sande Patrick, an artisan trainer from Namayingo district said he was ignorantly using mercury to extract gold from iron ore not knowing its negative impacts on health and environment until 2014.

“I started using mercury in 2009 when I joined artisanal gold mining. We used to get challenges like corrosive skin, headache and general body weaknesses not knowing that it’s as a result of absorption of mercury into our bodies,” Sande told artisanal miners during training.

Sande added, “However, when we met NAPE in 2014, we were sensitized about the dangers of mercury and trained in Borax use as an alternative and since then we have never looked back. A few of us who were trained have been able to train others and we are slowly phased out mercury use in Namayingo because we need life.”

Jane Ahimbisibwe, another artisanal trainer from Buhweju said for the time she has been using Borax she has observed that the gold recovery from iron ore is high and borax is readily available and less expensive in the market since it is not illegal like mercury.

“As women, we are the ones who normally move with children to the mines, who inhale mercury vapor even when we are pregnant and this puts our children’s growth at stake. Its better we spearhead this campaign against mercury use,” she said during the training.

The miners expressed willingness to switch to the use of Borax but called for more training to learn the methodology better.

“We need more training for the miners to get acquainted with Borax technology. And when we know the big number has been trained, it will give us a basis of fighting mercury in the mines as leaders,” said Ssempala Herbert Edward, the Manager for KitumbiKayonza Miners Association.

Mr. Ssempala hailed NAPE for coming up to train artisanal miners on alternatives of extracting gold.

“We shall ensure that every one gets trained and from there it will help us to phase out mercury knowing that everyone has knowledge on the alternative,” Ssempala said.

He, however, notes that the government is partly to blame for the weak laws to control mercury from being smuggled into the country and lack of enough sensitization on other methods to be used in gold extraction.

“Mercuryuse in the mines isillegal in the country but we don’t know how it ends up here. KKMA is against Mercury use but how to control it is a problem. The government should help us by ensuring that it is not smuggled into the country and also promote other alternatives as we work together to promote mercury free gold mining,” Ssempala says.

Peruth Atukwatse, the Program Officer in Charge of Sound Chemical Management at NAPE said since the artisanal miners areorganized under KKMA for the case of kayonza, the association leaders should spearhead the fight against mercury use by embracing the opportunity of getting training on Borax use and slowly phasing out use of mercury.

She also said the government should speed up the process of passing the Mining and Mineral Bill 2019 that is currently in draft form and ensures that there is emphasis on regulating the chemicals like mercury that miners use to extract gold.

On 1st March 2019, Uganda became a signatory to Minamata Convention, the first global treaty that seeks to protect human health and the physical environment from mercury emissions and its release into the environment.With Minamata Convention coming into force, there is need to raise more awareness on the dangers of mercury and promoting less harmful alternative mining practices.  This project is contributing to such global efforts of phasing out mercury use.